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Spectral modeling of channel band shapes in wavelength selective switches

日期: 2017-02-20
浏览次数: 66

【转载】

Spectral modeling of channel band shapes in wavelength selective switches


Cibby Pulikkaseril,* Luke A. Stewart, Michael A. F. Roelens, ¨ Glenn W. Baxter, Simon Poole, and Steve Frisken Finisar Australia, 244 Young st., Waterloo, NSW, 2017, Australia


Abstract: A model for characterizing the spectral response of the passband of Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS) is presented. We demonstrate that, in contrast to the commonly used supergaussian model, the presented model offers a more complete match to measured results, as it is based on the physical operation of the optical system. We also demonstrate that this model is better suited for calculation of WSS channel bandwidths, as well as predicting the final bandwidth of cascaded WSS modules. Finally, we show the utility of this model in predicting channel shapes in flexible bandwidth WSS channel plans.


© 2011 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060.2330) Fiber optics communications; (060.4265) Networks, wavelength routing; (230.7408) Wavelength filtering devices.


References and links

1. S. Gringeri, B. Basch,V. Shukla, R. Egorov, T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 40–50 (2010).

2. J. D. Downie, and A. B. Ruffin, “Analysis of signal distortion and crosstalk penalties induced by optical filters in optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1876–1886 (2003).

3. S. Tibuleac, and M. Filer, “Transmission impairments in DWDM networks with reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 557–598 (2010).

4. T. A. Strasser, and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1150–1157 (2010).

5. F. Heismann, “System requirements for WSS filter shape in cascaded ROADM networks,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2010.

6. G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006.

7. M. A. F. Roelens, S. Frisken, J. A. Bolger, D. Abakoumov, G. Baxter, S. Poole, B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion trimming in a reconfigurable wavelength selective switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 73–78 (2008).

8. J. W. Goodman, “Frequency analysis of optical imaging system,” in Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (Roberts and Company, 2005).

9. D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, C. S. Pai, N. R. Basavanhally, V. A. Aksyuk, D. O. Lopez, F. Pardo, ´ M. E. Simon, Y. Low, P. Kolodner, and C. A. Bolle,“Wavelength-selective 1 x K switches using free-space optics and MEMS micromirrors: theory, design, and implementation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1620–1630 (2005).

10. R. N. Thurston, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Analysis of picosecond pulse shape synthesis by spectral masking in a grating pulse compressor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-22, 682–696 (1986).

11. P. Wall, P. Colbourne, C. Reimer, and S. McLaughlin, “WSS switching engine technologies,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2007.

12. “ZEMAX Optical Design Program,” ZEMAX Development Corporation, USA.

13. D. Marcuse, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703–718 (1977).

14. J. F. James, Spectrograph Design Fundamentals (Cambridge University Press, 2007).

15. C. Malouin, J. Bennike, and T. J. Schmidt, “Differential phase-shift keying receiver design applied to strong optical filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3536–3542 (2007). #141439 - $15.00 USD Received 24 Jan 2011; revised 25 Mar 2011; accepted 4 Apr 2011; published 18 Apr 2011 (C) 2011 OSA 25 April 2011 / Vol. 19, No. 9 / OPTICS EXPRESS 8458 Fig. 1. General schematic of LCoS-based WSS operation as shown in [6].



1.Introduction

Modern optical networks require add/drop nodes to allow efficient routing of signals, necessitating the use of reconfigurable optical add/drop modules (ROADMs) [1]. ROADMs replace passive splitters and multiplexers with Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS), an optical module that allows (de)multiplexing of individual wavelengths to selected common or output ports.


To understand the impact of the WSS channel shape on network performance, it is crucial to have an accurate spectral model of the WSS channel shape, especially as advanced modulation formats are being deployed to increase the spectral efficiency of the network. Early publications have characterized WSS channel shapes with third-order Butterworth filters [2], though this was primarily for thin-film devices. Currently, the literature favours modeling WSS channel shapes with the supergaussian function [3–5], which can be used to roughly match measurements, but is not representative of the underlying physical process, especially when used to predict the performance of a high-bit rate optical link with transmission through multiple ROADM nodes [4, 5].


The WSS structure considered in this letter, shown in Fig. 1, uses a liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) switching element, as reported in [6]. In this implementation, the input optical signal passes through polarization diversity optics before being incident on a diffraction grating. The diffracted light is then focused onto a 2D array of LCoS pixels, where each pixel is individually addressed and causes a phase retardation from 0 to 2π. In one axis, a phase ramp is created to steer the beam to a desired output fiber [7].


In this letter, we present a method of modeling the channel shape of a WSS. This model is based on the physical operation of the device and it is shown that this model can be generalized to WSS designs that use alternative switching technologies. The model provides some insight into the specification of the WSS, namely that the optical transfer function bandwidth can be a single characterizing parameter of the spectral channel shape. We then demonstrate how this model can be used to predict the bandwidth of cascaded WSS channels, as well as facilitate the prediction of flexible bandwidth channel plans....


  

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【转载】Spectral modeling of channel bandshapes in wavelength selective switches Cibby Pulikkaseril,* Luke A. Stewart, Michael A. F. Roelens, ¨Glenn W. Baxter, Simon Poole, and Steve FriskenFinisar Australia, 244 Young st., Waterloo, NSW, 2017, Australia Abstract: A model for characterizing the spectral response of thepassband of Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS) is presented. Wedemonstrate tha...
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